Cross: Patriarchal, Lorraine, doubled

Doubled cross (Period)

Doubled cross (Period)

The “patriarchal cross” dates from at least c.1370, in the arms of the Kings of Hungary [Gelre 52v].  In its earliest depictions, it was shown with two crosspieces of equal length; and period blazons called it a Doppelkreuz, “doubled cross”.  (The frontispiece to Siebmacher, 1605, blazons it as ein zweyfaches creutz, “a two-shelf cross”.)

Cross of Lorraine (Period)

Cross of Lorraine (Period)

Around the 15th Century, the lower crosspiece began to be drawn slightly longer; this variation was found throughout Eastern Europe (Ingeram, c.1450 [35], attributes it to St. Ladislaus, d.1095).  René d’Anjou, who among his other titles was Duke of Lorraine, claimed the throne of Hungary, and used this cross as his badge; at the Battle of Nancy, 1477, René’s soldiers bore the Duke’s cross, which thereafter became known as the “cross of Lorraine”.  [Sir George Bellew, “Two Crosses”, Coat of Arms, I(7), July 1951, p.227]

Patriarchal cross (Period)

Patriarchal cross (Period)

Meanwhile, a form of the cross with a longer lower limb was still being called a “patriarchal cross” in England, in the arms of Brytton, c.1460 [RH]; and this is the form so named in most modern heraldry texts [e.g., Neubecker 107].  All of these forms are considered artistic variations, with no heraldic difference granted between them.

Karolus Janos bears:  Sable, a patriarchal cross argent.

Lorraine Marcus bears:  Quarterly vert and Or, a cross of Lorraine sable.

Bors Boden bears:  Argent semy of double-crosses sable, a bordure gules semy of double-crosses argent.

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