The following abbreviations are used in the Pictorial Dictionary to refer to specific frequently-cited sources:

Humphery-Smith, C. R.  Anglo-Norman Armory.  Family History, 1973.

Humphery-Smith, C.R.  Anglo-Norman Armory Two:  An ordinary of 13th Century armorials.  Institute of Heraldic and Genealogical Studies, 1984.

Pidal de Navascues, F.M.  Libro de Armeria del Reino de Navarra (Book of Arms of the Kingdom of Navarre).  La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, Bilbao, 1974 (orig. compiled mid-16th C).

London, H.S., & Tremlett, T.  Aspilogia II:  Rolls of Arms temp. Henry III.  Society of Antiquaries, 1967.

Bedingfeld, H., & Gwynn-Jones, P.  Heraldry.  Chartwell Books, 1993.

Bossewell, J.  Workes of Armorie.  Da Capo Press, reprinted 1969 (orig. pub 1572).

Brault, G.  Early Blazon:  Heraldic Terminology in the 12th and 13th Centuries.  Oxford University Press, 1972.

Brault, G.  Eight Thirteenth Century Rolls of Arms.  Pennsylvania State University Press, 1973.

Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (National Library of Bavaria).  Online resource of scanned documents from the Bavarian National Library collection, including many heretofore unavailable rolls of arms.  At with search capabilities.

von Richtental, U.  Chronicle of the Council of Constance (Das Concilium zu Constenz).  Compiled 1413; illustrated and published 1536.

Chesshyre, H., & Woodcock, T.  Dictionary of British Arms:  Medieval Ordinary, vol.1.  Society of Antiquaries of London, 1992.

Woodcock, T., & Grant, J.  Dictionary of British Arms:  Medieval Ordinary, vol.2.  Society of Antiquaries of London, 1996.

Woodcock, T., & Flower, S.  Dictionary of British Arms:  Medieval Ordinary, vol.3.  Society of Antiquaries of London, 2009.

Woodcock, T., & Flower, S.  Dictionary of British Arms:  Medieval Ordinary, vol.4.  Society of Antiquaries of London, 2014.

[de Bara]
de Bara, H.  Le Blason des Armoiries (The Blazon of Armory).  Chez Jean de Bonnot, reprinted 1975 (orig. pub. 1581).

Franklyn, J., & Tanner, J.  An Encyclopædic Dictionary of Heraldry.  Pergamon Press, 1970.

Friar, S.  A Dictionary of Heraldry.  Harmony Books, 1987.

Le grand armorial équestre de la Toison d’Or (Great Armorial of the Order of the Golden Fleece).  Edited by Michel Pastoureau and Michel Popoff.  Éditions du Gui, 2001 (orig. compiled c.1460).

Heinenzoon, C.  The Armorial de Gelre.  Edited by C. Van den Bergen et al.  Jan van Helmont, 1992 (orig. pub. c.1370).

Sadie, S., et al.  The New Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians.  Grove’s Dictionaries, Inc., 2nd edition, 2001.

Fox-Davies, A. C.  A Complete Guide to Heraldry.  Revised and annotated by J.P. Brooke-Little.  Bonanza Books, 1985 (orig. pub. 1909).

[Guillim1], [Guillim2]
Guillim, J.  A Display of Heraldrie.  London.  1st edition, 1610 [Guillim1]; 2nd edition, 1632 [Guillim2].

Gwynn-Jones, P.  The Art of Heraldry:  Origins, Symbols and Designs.  Prospero Books, 1998.

Hawley, W. & Chappelear, K.  Mon: The Japanese Family Crest.  W. M. Hawley Press, 1976.

Heralds’ Commemorative Exhibition, 1484-1934.  English College of Arms, London, 1936.

Brooke-Little, J. P.  An Heraldic Alphabet.  Arco Publishing, 2nd edition, 1975.

Fox-Davies, A. C.  Heraldic Badges.  John Lane, 1907.

Hope, Wm. St.John.  A Grammar of English Heraldry.  Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 1953.

Hope, Wm. St.John.  Heraldry for Craftsmen and Designers.  Pitman & Sons, 1929.

Ingeram, H.  The Ingeram Codex (also called the Codex Cotta after one of its owners).  Edited by C. Becher and O. Gamber.  Hermann Böhlaus, 1986 (orig. compiled c.1450).

Legh, G.  The Accidens of Armory.  London, 1576.

Mayer, L.A.  Saracenic Heraldry.  Oxford University Press, 1933.

Neubecker, O.  Heraldry:  Sources, Symbols and Meaning.  McGraw-Hill Books, 1976.

Godinho, A.  Livro da Nobreza e Perfeicam das Armas (Book of Nobility).  Edited by M. de Albuquerque and J.P. de Abreu e Lima.  Edicoes Inapa, 1987 (orig. pub. c.1540).  [Nobreza]

Raber, V.  Vigil Rabers Neustifter Wappenbuch.  Edited by H.W. Arch.  Verlag A. Weger, Brixen, 2001 (orig. compiled mid-16th C.).

Parker, J.  A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry.  Charles E. Tuttle, reprinted 1970 (orig. pub. 1894).

Pastoureau, M.  Traité d’Héraldique.  Picard, 2nd edition, 1993.

Holme, R.  Randle Holme’s Book.  Edited by Oswald Barron as “A Fifteenth Century Book of Arms”, The Ancestor, 1902 (orig. compiled c.1460).

Scheibler, first name unknown.  Scheibler’schen Wappenbuch (Scheibler’s Roll of Arms), c.1450.  Online at

Campbell, C.  The Scots Roll: A Study of a Fifteenth Century Roll of Arms.  Heraldry Society of Scotland, 1995 (orig. compiled c.1455).

Siddons, M.  Heraldic Badges in England and Wales.  Boydell Press, 2009.

Siebmacher, J.  The Roll of Arms (Dem Wappenbuch).  Edited by Horst Appuhn.  Harenberg, 1989 (orig. pub. 1605).

Jenyn, T.  Thomas Jenyn’s Book.  Heraldry Society of Scotland, Peebles, 1983 (orig. compiled c.1410).

Maspoli, C.  Stemmario Trivulziano.  Niccolo’ Orsini de Marzo, Milan, 2000 (orig. compiled mid-15th C.).

von Volborth, C.A.  Heraldry:  Customs, Rules and Styles.  Blandford Press, 1981.

de Walden, H.  Banners, Standards and Badges, from a Tudor Manuscript in the College of Arms.  The de Walden Library, 1904 (orig. compiled c.1510).

[Woodcock & Robinson]
Woodcock, T., & Robinson, J.  The Oxford Guide to Heraldry.  Oxford University Press, 1988.

Woodward, J., & Burnett, G.  A Treatise on Heraldry, British and Foreign.  Charles E. Tuttle, reprinted 1969 (orig. pub. 1896).

The Zurich Roll of Arms (Wappenrolle von Zürich, Rôle d’Armes de Zurich).  Edited by Michel Popoff.  Léopard d’Or, 1986 (orig. compiled c.1340).